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刑民诉讼是指通过法院审理刑事和民事案件的诉讼活动总和。在澳洲,无论多么轻微的罪行都可能被指控严重的刑事犯罪,同时许多民事纠纷也往往需要法院的裁定予以解决。为此澳法评作者们撰写了刑事犯罪、商业纠纷、财产纠纷和诬陷诽谤等文章帮助读者深入了解刑民诉讼。 如果您被指控犯有刑事犯罪或者在民事纠纷中被控告,请立即与我们联系,我们的专业团队会优先为您安排处理。当您需要维护自己的合法权益时,必要的诉讼纠纷解决和仲裁事宜也可交给我们处理。

澳洲版的“不要和陌生人说话” | 澳法评

2021.06.15 | 程嘉迪 | #刑事犯罪

关于此文的更多问题,欢迎联系澳洲法律评论(免费法律热线:1300 0123 00或微信:Auslawreview01),获得更多资讯与澳洲昆士兰州布里斯班领先华语律师团队的法律建议。

2001年在中国上映的电视剧 – 不要和陌生人说话,让观众认识到家庭暴力的危害。让我们触目惊心的除了男主对女主造成身体上的暴力,还有对女主的精神控制,即精神暴力,性暴力和经济暴力

TV series released in China in 2001-Don’t talk to strangers, let the audience realize the serious influence of domestic violence. We are shocking in both the physical violence caused by the actor against the actress, and the mental control (such as, mental violence, sexual violence and economic violence)resulting in the actress.

目前,在澳大利亚,对女性进行强制性控制行为的案件数量逐年增加。埃文·史塔克(Evan Stark)教授确立了“coercive control 强制性控制”这一专有名词来表述这些行为。强制性控制行为可包括控制某人的着装,剥夺其获取报酬的机会,跟踪某人的实时位置,通过控制或禁止与其他人见面来隔离某人,以及其他经常导致严重的人身暴力行为。但是,在刑事案件中,对强制性控制的界定依旧模糊,尤其是强制性控制对受害人造成的伤害的界定。刑法关于家庭暴力的判定标准更多地侧重于人身伤害方面。

In Australia, there is a significant increase in the number of behaviours that deprive women of daily freedom. Professor Evan Stark has established the phrase ‘coercive control’ to describe these behaviours.  Coercive and controlling behaviour might include controlling what someone wears, limiting access to money, tracking someone’s location, isolated someone by controlling or prohibiting who they can see and constant texting, and often leading to severe physical violence. However, the concept of coercive control is still not been well-reflected in criminal justice responses, especially in offences. The traditional approach of the criminal law on physical violence more focus on physical harm.

2020 年的汉娜·克拉克(Hannah Clarke)谋杀案促进了修改澳大利亚法律的进程。汉娜·克拉克(Hannah Clarke)是三个孩子的母亲,她的丈夫经常对其精神虐待。汉娜的丈夫从未打过她,但他在情感上,经济上和性上虐待了她长达十年。汉娜申请了多项民事保护令,但她的丈夫经常违反保护令。不幸的是,警方对此也没有给予足够的重视。她尝试了所有的方法来获得保护,但是依旧没有阻止惨剧的发生。2020年2月,在汉娜送她的三个孩子上学时,其丈夫将汽油倒在了她的身上并点燃了汽车。她的丈夫以残忍的手段谋杀了汉娜和她的孩子们。此事件引发了有关澳大利亚家庭暴力的激烈辩论。汉娜的父母失望的表示,法律保护令都无法限制其杀人犯丈夫的残暴行为,最终导致了惨剧的发生。这一惨剧,敦促政府在处理家庭暴力案件时改进警察和法院的行动方向,并要求进行司法改革。

 

Hannah Clarke’s murder 2020 has stimulated the announcement of modifying the Australian law.  Hannah Clarke is a mother of three children and has an abusive husband.  The husband never hit Hannah, but he emotionally, financially, and sexually abused her for ten years.  She has applied for several civil protection orders, but her husband often breached the orders’ conditions, and it was not taken seriously enough by the police.  She has tried every method that she can approach, but there was still a bad outcome for her children.  In February 2020, when Hannah sent her three children to school, her husband poured the petrol on her and burned the car.  Her husband murdered Hannah and her children.  This incident has sparked a significant debate about domestic violence in Australia. Her parents argued that the husband was ‘above the law’ and urged the government to improve the police and courts action when dealing with the domestic violence case and requested law reform.

因此,2021年2月,昆士兰州州长Annastacia Palaszczuk宣布,昆州打算制定一个新法律来禁止强制性控制的行为。 目前,在英格兰和威尔士 (England and Wales)已有该类型的法律。

Accordingly, in Feb 2021, the Premie of Queensland, Annastacia Palaszczuk, announced that Queensland is intended to have legislation against coercive control in places like the las in England and Wales to protect the public from non-physical domestic and family violence.

但是,关于引入强制性控制,这一概念存在一些争论。首先,在收集证据方面存在长期的困难,因为除了受害人和被告之外,没有证人可以证明。最重要的是,可能没有足够的证据证明存在精神暴力,性暴力和经济暴力,并且其证明的难度也非常大。此外,有人批评新立法将与澳大利亚目前的做法相重叠,例如针对折磨,跟踪行为等的民事保护令。另一个关键的辩论是,该立法可能会导致对家庭暴力犯罪的入刑门槛发生改变。但是,如前所述,在英格兰和威尔士,在适用的第一年中有62次家庭暴力起诉适用了这一量刑标准,并且成绩斐然。因此,在澳大利亚起草该法律时,在英格兰和威尔士的成功适用,为起草人提供出色的借鉴价值。

However, there are some debates about the introduction of the conceive control offence. Firstly, there are long-standing difficulties in collecting the evidence as there are no witnesses to prove the incident besides the victim and the defendant. Most importantly, there may be no evidence of injury sustained which led the testimony to be considered hearsay. Moreover, some people criticism that the new legislation will overlap with current Australian approaches such as torture, stalking and civil protection order. Another critical debate is that the legislation might cause over-criminalisation, redundancy, and ‘open the floodgate’. However, as mentioned, in England and Wales, there are 62 times prosecution used this offence in the first introduction year which a relatively good result.  The legislation neither opens the floodgate nor causes over-criminalisation and thus is likely to provide an excellent guideline for draftsperson when drafting the legislation in Australia.

目前来看,在家庭暴力范围内,对强制性控制行为规范的法律改革是必要的,也是昆士兰州正在进行的司法改革重点。引入“强制性控制”犯罪定义,对现有犯罪进行修改将是界定家暴行为的重中之重。

In a nutshell, a law reform in this area is a necessity but it is arguable that whether a ‘coercive control’ offence will be introduced or a modification on an existing offence will be preferred.

如果您很不幸的遭遇了家庭暴力行为,例如身体虐待,精神虐待,性虐待和经济虐待,请您尽快寻求专业的法律帮助。如需了解更多专业法律知识,欢迎来澳和律业进行咨询!欢迎加微信auslawreview02,获得更多咨询。

If you are unfortunate to experience domestic violence including physical harm, mental abuse, sexual abuse and financial abuse, please seek professional legal help immediately. If you want to know more professional legal knowledge, please come to Auslaw Partners for consultation! Welcome to add WeChat: auslawreview02. 

 

 

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